Items starting with T

The Sun Belongs to Everyone

Receiving on average eight and a half hours of sun every day, Palestine’s abundance of sunlight combined with the open and expansive landscapes of the West Bank, give rise to enormous potential in solar energy generation. For many Palestinian communities in Area C, which constitutes over 60 percent of the West Bank, power harnessed through solar energy is the only source of electricity available. Where the Israeli Civil Administration (ICA) has denied Palestinian communities access to the nearby electricity networks, solar panels serve to power refrigerators necessary to preserve medication and food, heat water, and provide lighting for children to study, amongst other uses. In these circumstances, solar energy does not function as a supplemental source of power but rather constitutes a last resort measure to meet basic human needs.

The Jerusalem Trap

When Israel’s construction of the Annexation Wall (the Wall) began in 2002, it quickly became apparent that the planned route did not follow the 1967 ‘Green Line’, and that its purpose was to illegally annex areas of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. The International Court of Justice confirmed the illegality of this policy in 2004.
This report seeks to highlight the various factors that are currently inducing some Palestinian residents of East Jerusalem to move to areas on the eastern side of the Wall. It will further outline the potential risks that these residents face with respect to unilateral changes Israel may make to the municipal boundaries of East Jerusalem.

The Reply of Law in the Service of Man / Al-Haq to the US Report on Human Rights Practices in the Occupied Territories by Israel for 1982

The Reply of Law in the Service of Man / Al-Haq to the US Report on Human Rights Practices in the Occupied Territories by Israel for 1982

The Right to Freedom of Assembly: An Analysis of the Position of the Palestinian National Authority

This paper addresses the restrictions on the freedom of assembly and expression imposed by the Palestinian National Authority and the Palestinian Police. In particular, it considers the orders and directives issued by Palestinian authorities which specifically restricted such rights both generally and in particular environments such as schools. Some such directives are based on existing legislation, while others have no legal basis. Those with a legal basis are however the result of improper implementation of the law, or of a failure to adhere to the spirit of the law, thus resulting in the restriction of the Palestinians' rights.

Town Planning Under Military Occupation: An Examination of the Law and Practice of Town Planning in the Occupied West Bank

This report addresses the matter of town planning in the West Bank, an issue which has a direct and intense impact on the quality of the lives of Palestinians. Town planning affects both their prospects of future prosperity as well as their prospects of nationhood. The Israeli military government in the West Bank utilised a planning policy which was rigorously consistent, and the decisions made through this mechanism influenced social and economic development, transport, and the quality of the environment. They influenced not only where Palestinians could build their homes, but whether those homes could be built at all. The report addresses Israeli plans for and control over development, the legal and administrative basis of planning in the West Bank, and Israeli settlements and land seizure.


The continuing Israeli occupation significantly impedes education in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (OPT). As noted by the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Education: “military occupations are another appreciable curb on the human right to education, the most egregious example being the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.” There is substantial evidence that Israel is failing in its duties under international human rights and humanitarian law with regard to education. UNICEF has reported that 144 schools in the OPT were disrupted during the 2005/2006 highlighting academic year as a result of Israeli military activities, resulting in the disturbance of schooling for 64,712 students and 2,470 teachers. Research conducted in 2004 revealed that 226,000 children in 580 schools found going to school “impossible, irregular or very risky.”

The Human Rights of Persons with Disabilities

The first intifada brought the question of disability to the fore, and Palestinians with disabilities have mobilised with a view to demanding their rights. This report examines definitions of disability; international standards relating thereto; the right of those under occupation to adequate health care; domestic laws which affect Palestinians with disabilities; and areas for potential legislation for Palestinians with disabilities in a future state.

The Israeli High Court of Justice and the Palestinian Intifada: a stamp of approval for Israeli violations in the Occupied Territories

This legal study presents an analytical reading of certain Israeli High Court decisions during the second Palestinian intifada, which broke out in September 2000. The study highlights, through analysis of selected decisions, the role which the High Court played and still plays in providing a "legal" basis and a stamp of approval for Israeil violations and war crimes committed by the Israeli occupying forces angainst Palestinian civilians in the Occupied Palestinian Territories.

Taxation in the Occupied West Bank 1967-1989

Since the West Bank was occupied by Israel in 1967, local tax law has been amended hundreds of times. The effect of these amendments has been far-reaching. This report discusses the introduction of new taxes, due process in the assessment and collection of taxes, penalties, the burden of tax, the question of the budget, the actual practice of tax collection and other tax-related matters.

The West Bank And the Rule Of Law

This Al-Haq report is an analysis of the legal situation in the Israeli-occupied West Bank. It includes detailed studies of the legislation and administration of land rights, water rights, trading and commerce, town planning, trade unions, education, literature and information. The report establishes that Israel has altered the existing laws and administration in such a way as to make the economy of the West Bank subordinate to the interests of Israel, and to facilitate the encroachment on the territory of Jewish settlements, which are universally condemned as a violation of international law.

The Forced Transfer of Kifah & Intissar Ajuri

This paper examines the forced transfer of Kifah and Intissar Ajuri from their residence in the West Bank to the Gaza Strip. In what the Israeli High Court of Justice terms "assigned residence," forced transfer is allegedly made legitimate under the law of occupation. Al-Haq assess this policy in light of international law, in effect revealing the contradictions and shortcomings of the Israeli judicial system.

The Right to Unite: The Family Reunification Question in the Palestinian Occupied Teritories: Law and Practice

This paper examines the policy of the Israeli authorities towards the question of family reunification for Palestinians in the Occupied Palestinian Territories in light of international and local law. It includes a historical background, as well as a review of the scope and nature of the problem as exists today.

The Annexation Wall and its Associated Regime

Since June 2002, Israel has been constructing what Professor John Dugard, former UN Special Rapporteur Special apporteur on the situation of human rights in the Palestinian territories occupied since 1967, has termed “the Annexation Wall.” From the outset, the Wall building exercise has faced international condemnation on the basis of its illegality under international law. Approximately 87 percent of the Wall will be built on occupied territory. This is also in violation of the commitment Israel made during the 1995 Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the 3 Gaza Strip that “neither side shall initiate or take any step that will change the status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip pending the outcome of the permanent status 4 negotiation.” The construction of the Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (OPT) and its associated regime, is having a devastating impact upon the fundamental human rights of the Palestinian population in the occupied territory.

The Wall in the West Bank

The purpose of this written brief is to demonstrate the non-implementation of the International Court of Justice’s Advisory Opinion of 9 July 2004, more than two years after it was rendered. The brief will recall the Court’s authoritative interpretation of international law and its rejection by Israeli authorities, demonstrate the continuing relevance of illegal Israeli settlements in the occupied West Bank for the question of the Wall, show the connection between the Wall and the annexation of Palestinian land, including the “invisible Wall” along the Jordan Valley, and recall the obligations of the international community with regard to the Wall.

The UN Register of Damage for the Wall

Al-Haq’s Legal Analysis of the Proposal of the Secretary-General On 9 July 2004, the International Court of Justice issued an Advisory Opinion (ICJ AO) finding Israel’s construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (OPT), including in and around East Jerusalem, to be in violation of international law. On 2 August 2004, the UN General Assembly requested “the Secretary-General to establish a register of damage caused to all natural or legal persons concerned in connection with paragraphs 152 and 153 of the advisory opinion.” On 17 October 2006, the UN Secretary-General submitted a report proposing an institutional framework for the Register of Damage (hereinafter “Secretary-General’s Report”). The present brief evaluates selected points of that proposal.

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