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Items starting with E

East Jerusalem: Exploiting Instability to Deepen the Occupation

Since Israel’s illegal annexation of East Jerusalem following its occupation in 1967, Israel has implemented a comprehensive policy to deepen its control over the city by weakening Palestinian presence and ties there. This includes removing the Palestinian population, either through actively revoking residency and property rights, or by creating conditions that force Palestinians to leave East Jerusalem, including through the suppression of Palestinian political, economic, social, and cultural life. At the same time, Israel endeavors to increase and fortify the Israeli Jewish presence in East Jerusalem through the expansion of illegal settlements.

Environmental Injustice In Occupied Palestinian Territory - Problems and Prospects

We were invited by Al Haq and Heinrich Böll Foundation to the West Bank to investigate environmental problems affecting Palestinians, which are attributable to Israel's occupation of the territories of the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and Gaza Strip. 'Environmental Justice' was the rubric within which we were requested to operate and to report.

Exploring the Illegality of ‘Land Swap’ Agreements under Occupation

Al-Haq’s Exploring the Illegality of ‘Land Swap’ Agreements under Occupation examines the legal implications of the conclusion of ‘land swap’ agreements between Israel and the Palestinian representatives whilst the Israeli occupation of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem and the Gaza Strip is ongoing.

Enforcement of International Law in the Israeli-occupied Territories

This paper aims to analyse the legal obligations of third-party states to enforce international law in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, particularly on the basis of the obligation under Article 1 of the Fourth Geneva Convention. Further, it seeks to inform those to whom these states are accountable of their governments' legal duties. It also considers the international criminal responsibility of states and individuals and the legal consequences of states' failure to act.

Education Under Siege: A Future in Jeopardy

This report focuses on the human rights violations carried out by Israeli occupying forces against Palestinians’ right to education during al-Aqsa Intifada. Access to education is a fundamental human right which should be safeguarded by all states. This right is clearly laid out inthe Fourth Geneva Convention and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. This study presents evidence and a legal analysis of Israeli policies and actions that have disrupted the education of Palestinian students of all ages.

Excessive Secrecy, Lack of Guidelines: A Report on Military Censorship in the West Bank

This paper outlines the Israeli practice of censorship in the occupied West Bank and the legal justifications given by the authorities for its imposition as it applies to importing, distributing, publishing, and possessing printed materials. In particular, it addresses Military Order No. 101 of 1967, the "Order Regarding Prohibition of Acts of Incitement and Hostile Propaganda." This military order, together with several others which address freedom of expression, results in an extensive and complex system of censorship. Taken together, they cover most methods of expressing or communicating ideas, giving Israeli military censors restrictive control over all publications which they consider to have any political meaning.

Extrajudicial Killings

Israel’s extrajudicial killings have become symbolic of its disregard for international law and the culture of impunity that surrounds these breaches. Extrajudicial killings are nothing new in Israel’s nearly forty-year-old occupation of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip, together constituting the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT). This background brief focuses on Israeli extrajudicial killings throughout the OPT between January and October 2006. Such killings continue today, as seen in the recent attacks on Gaza during the “Autumn Clouds” operation, creating an environment of constant fear that feeds into the seemingly never-ending cycle of violence.

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